Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host1. Probiotics can improve feed efficiency, enhance immune response, stimulate growth and development, and decompose waste.
Several studies have shown that the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can improve the digestive enzyme activity of fish, and also promote their survival and growth rates2. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that probiotics stimulate transcriptome changes in fish, thus enhancing their immune responses2.
Microorganisms are essential to the health of aquatic animals and plants
A teeming world of microbes lives in the ocean, in a complexity and diversity that rivals all other life on Earth. These microscopic organisms include bacteria, viruses, archaea, protists, and fungi. They are invisible to the naked eye, but they are the engines of the ocean. They clean the ocean and provide food and energy for other animals. They are also the guardians of healthy ecosystems, keeping their populations in balance by preventing disease rather than spreading it.
The microbes in the ocean use a variety of methods to get nutrients. Some, such as cyanobacteria, obtain their nutrition through photosynthesis, which uses sunlight to break down organic molecules in water. Others, such as Pelagibacter, rely on chemosynthesis, which uses preformed organic carbon from dead organisms to produce energy. These processes are essential to the health of the ocean.
In aquaculture, microorganisms can be used to enhance the health and performance of fish and shrimp. For example, a probiotic can improve feed digestibility and water quality in ponds by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria. In addition, probiotics can suppress the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in an animal’s gut.
Researchers have studied the effects of probiotics on a variety of species. In one study, the diet of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone was supplemented with Bacillus probiotics and showed higher apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and phosphorus than the control. However, the authors caution that if probiotics are not properly administered, they can lead to the accumulation of lactic acid in the digestive tract of the shrimp.
They help to decompose waste
The role of decomposers in an ecosystem is to break down organic wastes and make them available to the producers. These nutrients, such as carbon dioxide, water, and simple compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium, are essential for plant growth. They also help to regulate the pH of water.
Bacteria are capable of digesting a wide variety of organic materials. They can live under aerobic (requiring oxygen to survive) or anaerobic conditions, and some species are specialized for breaking down only one kind of material. In addition, bacteria can produce a large number of enzymes that break down complex molecules into simpler, more easily digested parts. This allows them to eat waste and reuse the materials for energy.
Another benefit of probiotics is that they can decompose toxic substances. In addition, these microorganisms can reduce the concentration of phenolic hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds in water. They can also break down organic toxins in sewage and wastewater, and may help to improve the quality of drinking water.
Despite their many benefits, probiotics have been associated with a few minor health issues, including bacterial toxicity and rare cases of bacteremia. However, if they are correctly administered in the right environment, they can benefit animals and humans by improving their intestinal microbial balance. The term “probiotic” was first used by Parker in 1974, and Fuller later defined it as “living microbial food supplements that are administered in a way that they reach the gut and remain alive, and which improve properties of indigenous microbial colonies.” Probiotics can be delivered by various methods, including emulsion, extrusion, spray drying, and adhesion to starch.
They help to prevent disease
Microorganisms are the most abundant life forms on the planet and are found everywhere. They live in soil, water, air, plants, rocks, and animals. They can even live in extreme environments such as hot springs, deep ocean thermal vents, and Antarctic ice. They are essential to the natural environment and help us survive.
However, microorganisms can also cause disease in humans and animals. There are bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other types of organisms that can cause infections. Many of these are carried by mosquitoes and other insects, which can infect people who drink contaminated water or eat contaminated food. They can also infect people by entering their bodies through a cut or bite. There are also parasites that can invade and eat the cells of animals or humans. These include protozoa, nematodes, tapeworms, and blood flukes.
Probiotics enhance the health of aquatic animals by changing the microbial community in their gut. They can do this by modifying the intestinal microbiome, secreting antibacterial substances, and inhibiting pathogens from adhering to the gut lining.
Probiotics can also increase the activity of the immune system and improve feed digestibility. For example, some Bacillus strains produce enzymes that can break down organic material in the water, facilitating its release and preventing the accumulation of toxic sediments. These probiotics are often added to aquaculture products such as PondZyme.
They help to regulate the pH of water
Aqua probiotics are microorganisms that improve the health and productivity of fish and shrimp. They have been shown to regulate the pH of water, reduce pathogens, and enhance growth. They also help to break down organic waste and prevent toxic compounds from being absorbed by fish. In addition, they increase the bioavailability of nutrients and stimulate the production of digestive enzymes. They also promote a healthy gut in the fish and shrimp, which is essential for the overall health of the animal.
In experiments with yellow tail (Seriola quinqueradiata), Kozasa used spores of Bacillus toyoi as an additive in the feed. He found that it increased apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and phosphorus, and size. In addition, it decreased nitrate and ammonia concentrations in the water. Other studies have used probiotics to improve the nutrition of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone. These probiotics were made up of a combination of strains from the genus Bacillus. These bacteria were more effective than gram-negative bacteria in breaking down organic carbon and transforming it to nitrogen gas.
People from developed societies spend a significant proportion of their lives indoors, which increases exposure to microorganisms that inhabit domestic environments. Water-borne microorganisms are influenced by water treatment processes and the generally inhospitable indoor environment. Some microorganisms adapt to these conditions by using phenolic hydrocarbons as their sole source of carbon and energy, and are more virulent than those found in natural habitats.